Despite advances in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treatments, patients eventually progress and develop resistance to therapies targeting a single pathway. Lenvatinib inhibits VEGFR1-3, FGFR1-4, PDGFRβ, RET and KIT proto-oncogenes. In a randomized, Phase II trial evaluating patients with mRCC who had progressed after one prior VEGF-targeted therapy, progression-free survival was significantly improved with lenvatinib alone or in combination with everolimus versus everolimus alone. This review summarizes the clinical development of lenvatinib in mRCC, and how simultaneous targeting of multiple pathways involved in carcinogenesis and/or therapeutic resistance may improve patient outcomes. Lenvatinib plus everolimus may be a promising second-line treatment in patients with mRCC.
Future oncology (London, England). 2016 Jun 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, 1053 Great Western Road, Glasgow, G12 OYN, UK.