The role of micronutrients in the risk of urinary tract cancer

Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers remain the most common urological malignancies worldwide, and the prevention and treatment of these diseases pose a challenge to clinicians. In recent decades, many studies have been conducted to assess the association between supplementation with selected vitamins and elements and urinary tract tumour initiation and development. Here, we review the relationship between vitamins A, B, D, and E, in addition to calcium, selenium, and zinc, and the risk of developing prostate, kidney and bladder cancer. A relatively consistent body of evidence suggests that large daily doses of calcium (> 2,000 mg/day) increase the risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, supplementation with 400 IU/day of vitamin E carries a significant risk of prostate cancer. However, there have been many conflicting results regarding the effect of these nutrients on kidney and bladder neoplasms. Moreover, the role of other compounds in urinary tract carcinogenesis needs further clarification.

Archives of medical science : AMS. 2016 Apr 12 [Epub]

Tomasz Golabek, Jakub Bukowczan, Robert Sobczynski, Jaroslaw Leszczyszyn, Piotr L Chlosta

Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland., Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom., Department of Cardiovascular Surgery and Transplantology, The John Paul II Hospital, Krakow, Poland., EMC Health Care Clinic, Dublin, Ireland., Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

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