Metastasis is a process consisting of cells spreading from the primary site of the cancer to distant parts of the body. Our understanding of this spread is limited and molecular mechanisms causing particular characteristics of metastasis are still unknown.
There is some evidence that primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and metastases of RCC exhibit molecular differences that may effect on the biological characteristics of the tumor. Some authors have detected differences in clear cell and nonclear cell component between these 2 groups of tumors. Investigators have also determined that primary RCC and metastases of RCC diverge in their range of renal-specific markers and other protein expression, gene expression pattern, and microRNA expression. There are also certain proteins that are variously expressed in primary RCCs and their metastases and have effect on clinical outcome, e. g. , endothelin receptor type B, phos-S6, and CD44. However, further studies are needed on large cohorts of patients to identify differences representing promising targets for prognostic purposes predicting disease-free survival and the metastatic burden of a patient as well as their suitability as potential therapeutic targets. To sum up, in this review we have attempted to summarize studies connected with differences between primary RCC and its metastases and their influence on the biological characteristics of renal cancer.
Urologic oncology. 2016 Feb 02 [Epub ahead of print]
Aleksandra Semeniuk-Wojtaś, Rafał Stec, Cezary Szczylik
Department of Oncology, Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. Department of Oncology, Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. , Department of Oncology, Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.