Immune-related adverse events associated with first-line immune checkpoint inhibitors for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

In the realm of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized treatment paradigms. Despite their effectiveness, the comprehensive safety profile of these therapies remains inadequately explored. This network meta-analysis aims to comparing the safety profiles of ICI-based treatments in mRCC, offering vital insights that could lead to the optimization of treatment strategies and improvement of patient care.

We conducted a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science,, Google Schola, OpenGrey and Scopus through November 1, 2023. The risk of bias assessment was performed using the Risk of Bias version 2 tool.

Seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with a total of 5976 patients were included for data analysis. The risk of bias results showed that all RCTs were considered "some concerns". The probability of hypothyroidism (surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) = 0.981), hyperthyroidism (SUCRA = 0.983) and dermatologic immune-related adverse events (irAEs) (SUCRA = 0.955) in the Nivolumab + Cabozantinib ranked the first. The Avelumab + Axitinib had the highest incidence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) (SUCRA = 0.976), hepatitis (SUCRA = 0.937) and colitis (SUCRA = 0.864). The Nivolumab + Ipilimumab exhibited the highest incidence of pneumonitis (SUCRA = 0.755). Pembrolizumab + Lenvatinib had the highest incidence of nephritic irAEs (SUCRA = 0.788). The ICI-based group showed a higher incidence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, dermatologic irAEs, hepatitis and nephritic irAEs than sunitinib. However, the confidence in the evidence regarding the impact of ICI-based treatments on AI, pneumonia, and colitis remains limited.

The analysis focused on the probability of irAEs occurrence in each system when mRCC patients were treated with different ICI-based therapies, potentially offering significant value for guiding clinical prevention, early diagnosis, and management of irAEs. The limitations of the study included the potential heterogeneity and low certainty of part of the evidence.

International immunopharmacology. 2024 Mar 21 [Epub ahead of print]

Shan Wang, Hongwei Lv, Jing Yu, Miao Chen

Cancer Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China., Emergency department, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address: .