Biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma and their targeted therapies: a review.

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most life-threatening urinary malignancies displaying poor response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Although in the recent past there have been tremendous advancements in using targeted therapies for RCC, despite that it remains the most lethal urogenital cancer with a 5-year survival rate of roughly 76%. Timely diagnosis is still the key to prevent the progression of RCC into metastatic stages as well as to treat it. But due to the lack of definitive and specific diagnostic biomarkers for RCC and its asymptomatic nature in its early stages, it becomes very difficult to diagnose it. Reliable and distinct molecular markers can not only refine the diagnosis but also classifies the tumors into thier sub-types which can escort subsequent management and possible treatment for patients. Potential biomarkers can permit a greater degree of stratification of patients affected by RCC and help tailor novel targeted therapies. The review summarizes the most promising epigenetic [DNA methylation, microRNA (miRNA; miR), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)] and protein biomarkers that have been known to be specifically involved in diagnosis, cancer progression, and metastasis of RCC, thereby highlighting their utilization as non-invasive molecular markers in RCC. Also, the rationale and development of novel molecular targeted drugs and immunotherapy drugs [such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)] as potential RCC therapeutics along with the proposed implication of these biomarkers in predicting response to targeted therapies will be discussed.

Exploration of targeted anti-tumor therapy. 2023 Oct 25 [Epub]

Shruti Gupta, Shamsher Singh Kanwar

Department of Biotechnology, Himachal Pradesh University, Summer Hill, Shimla 171 005, India.