Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the top 10 most common cancers in both men and women with an estimated 75 000 cases each year in the US. Over the last decade, the therapeutic landscape for patients with metastatic RCC has significantly evolved, with immunotherapy emerging as the new front-line therapy. Despite significant improvement in toxicity profile and survival outcomes, key concerns such as patient selection, treatment sequencing, and intrinsic and acquired resistance remain unresolved. Emerging options such as antibody-based therapeutics (eg, anti-CD70, anti-CA9, and anti-ENPP3) are being explored in clinical trials for patients with cancer resistant or refractory to current immunotherapies. Despite positive results for hematological cancers, breast cancer, and more recently bladder cancer, most antibody-based therapies failed to improve the outcomes in patients with advanced RCC. This underscores the need to understand the underlying causes of failed responses to this treatment class, which will ultimately support the rational design of more effective and tolerable treatments. In this review, we summarize the evolving landscape of RCC therapeutics and describe recent clinical trials with emerging antibody-based therapeutics. We also describe the challenges that need to be overcome for the successful creation of therapeutic antibodies for treating RCC.
The oncologist. 2023 Feb 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Ahmed M Mahmoud, Reza Nabavizadeh, Rodrigo Rodrigues Pessoa, Ishita Garg, Jacob Orme, Brian A Costello, John Cheville, Fabrice Lucien
Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA., Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA., Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA., Department of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.