An exploratory study of CT radiomics using differential network feature selection for WHO/ISUP grading and progression-free survival prediction of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

To explore the feasibility of predicting the World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) grade and progression-free survival (PFS) of clear cell renal cell cancer (ccRCC) using the radiomics features (RFs) based on the differential network feature selection (FS) method using the maximum-entropy probability model (MEPM).

175 ccRCC patients were divided into a training set (125) and a test set (50). The non-contrast phase (NCP), cortico-medullary phase, nephrographic phase, excretory phase phases, and all-phase WHO/ISUP grade prediction models were constructed based on a new differential network FS method using the MEPM. The diagnostic performance of the best phase model was compared with the other state-of-the-art machine learning models and the clinical models. The RFs of the best phase model were used for survival analysis and visualized using risk scores and nomograms. The performance of the above models was tested in both cross-validated and independent validation and checked by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test.

The NCP RFs model was the best phase model, with an AUC of 0.89 in the test set, and performed superior to other machine learning models and the clinical models (all p <0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, univariate and multivariate cox regression results, and risk score analyses showed the NCP RFs could predict PFS well (almost all p < 0.05). The nomogram model incorporated the best two RFs and showed good discrimination, a C-index of 0.71 and 0.69 in the training and test set, and good calibration.

The NCP CT-based RFs selected by differential network FS could predict the WHO/ISUP grade and PFS of RCC.

Frontiers in oncology. 2022 Oct 27*** epublish ***

Fu Yin, Haijie Zhang, Anqi Qi, Zexuan Zhu, Liyang Yang, Ge Wen, Weixin Xie

College of Electronics and Information Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China., Medical Imaging Department, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China., College of Computer Science and Software Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

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