Renal mass biopsy (RMB) is a safe and accurate method for diagnosis and clinical management of renal masses. However, the non-diagnostic rate is a limiting factor. We tested the hypothesis that imaging characteristics and anatomic complexity of the mass may impact RMB diagnostic outcome using the preoperative aspects and dimensions used for an anatomical (PADUA) classification and radius-exophytic/endophytic-nearness-anterior/posterior-location (RENAL) score.
Single institution, retrospective study of 490 renal masses from 443 patients collected from 2001 to 2018. Outcome measurements include (1) diagnostic and concordance rates amongst RMB types and RMB with surgical resection specimens; (2) association between diagnostic RMB and anatomical complexity of renal masses. The analysis was conducted in unselected masses and small renal masses (SRMs).
RMB was performed by fine needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), or both (FNA+CNB). Non-diagnostic rate was significantly higher for FNA compared to CNB and FNA+CNB in both unselected and SRMs. Subset analysis in the FNA+CNB group showed similar diagnostic rates for FNA and CNB. In unselected masses, specificity for FNA, CNB, and FNA+CNB was 100%. Sensitivity was higher for CNB (90.1%, P = 0.002) and FNA+CNB (96.3%, P = 0.004) compared to FNA (66.7%). For unselected masses, endophytic growth predicted a non-diagnostic CNB. R.E.N.A.L location entirely between the polar lines (central) and entirely above the upper polar line predicted a diagnostic CNB. Sonography-guidance predicted a diagnostic FNA. For SRMs, non-diagnostic CNB was associated with endophytic growth, while diagnostic CNB was associated with renal sinus invasion and operator experience. More cystic masses were sampled by FNA, but diagnostic results were similar for FNA and CNB.
Endophytic growth consistently predicted a non-diagnostic CNB in unselected and SRMs, whereas sonography-guidance predicted a diagnostic FNA. Cystic masses could be adequately sampled by FNA.
Urologic oncology. 2021 Mar 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Ricardo B Fonseca, Melissa M Straub Hogan, Meghan E Kapp, Frances Cate, Alice Coogan, Sandeep Arora, Jennifer Gordetsky, Woodson W Smelser, Peter E Clark, Justin Cates, Giovanna A Giannico
Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences; Nashville, TN., Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Microbiology; Nashville, TN., PathGroup Laboratories, Brentwood, TN., Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN., Department of Urology, Urologic Oncology Levine Cancer Institute Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC., Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Microbiology; Nashville, TN. Electronic address: .