To evaluate trends and factors predicting use of renal mass biopsy (RMB) for localized Renal Cell Carcinoma in the United States (US) in the context of current guidelines recommendations.
We queried the National Cancer Database for cT1-cT3N0M0 Renal Cell Carcinoma diagnosed between 2004 and 2015. Temporal trends of RMB were characterized based on tumor size, treatment (partial nephrectomy [PN], radical nephrectomy [RN], ablation, and no treatment), age and Charlson Comorbidity Index with slopes compared using analysis of variance. Multivariable analysis was used to determine factors associated with use of RMB.
Of 338,252 patients analyzed, 11.9% (40,276) underwent RMB. Use of RMB increased throughout the study period from 1,586 (7.6%) in 2004 to 5,629 (16.2%) in 2015 (P < 0.001). Use of RMB increased greatest for ablation (27 to 63%, P < 0.001) and tumors 2-4 cm (9 to 20%, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed year of diagnosis (OR = 1.06; P < 0.001), higher education (OR = 1.09; P < 0.001) and insured status (OR = 1.23; P < 0.001) were associated with increased RMB. Compared to tumors ≤2 cm, tumors 2.1-4 cm (OR = 1.36; P=<0.001), 4.1-7 cm (OR = 1.18; P <0.001) and >7 cm (OR = 1.05; P = 0.03) were associated with higher rates of RMB. Compared to RN, PN was not associated with increased RMB (OR = 1.00; P = 0.92), while ablation (OR = 10.90; P < 0.001) and no surgical treatment (OR = 4.83; P < 0.001) were.
RMB utilization increased overall, with largest increase associated with ablation. Nonetheless, only two-thirds of patients underwent RMB with ablation, suggesting persistent underutilization. Rates of RMB for tumors ≤2 cm and in those undergoing no treatment increased less, suggesting less utilization for surveillance. However, rates for tumors >2-4 cm increased more, suggesting selective utilization of RMB to guide decision-making and risk stratification in small renal masses.
Urologic oncology. 2020 Nov 04 [Epub ahead of print]
Devin N Patel, Fady Ghali, Margaret F Meagher, Juan Javier-Desloges, Sunil H Patel, Shady Soliman, Kevin Hakimi, Julia Yuan, James Murphy, Ithaar H Derweesh
Department of Urology, UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA., Department of Radiation Oncology, UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA., Department of Urology, UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA. Electronic address: .