Owing to an improved understanding of the immunobiological profile of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the past few years have ushered in significant changes in systemic therapies for advanced stage RCC. First-line treatment with single agent tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has been virtually replaced for most patients by immunotherapy combinations. The first of such treatments was the dual immune checkpoint inhibitor combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab. More recently, the combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a TKI has also moved into the first-line setting. This review summarizes the pharmacologic properties, evidence for use and safety of avelumab, a PD-L1 inhibitor and axitinib a small molecule TKI, each as monotherapy, and in combination for the management of metastatic RCC.
Future oncology (London, England). 2020 Aug 28 [Epub ahead of print]
Maryam Soleimani, Lucia Nappi, Christian Kollmannsberger
Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6, Canada.