Despite remarkable recent progress in treating solid cancers, especially the success of immunomodulatory antibody therapies for numerous different cancer types, it remains the case that many patients fail to respond to treatment. It is therefore of immense importance to identify biomarkers predicting clinical responses to treatment and patient survival, which would not only assist in targeting treatments to patients most likely to benefit, but might also provide mechanistic insights into the reasons for success or failure of the therapy. Several peripheral blood or tumor tissue diagnostic and predictive biomarkers known to be informative for cancer patient survival may be applicable for this purpose. The use of peripheral blood ("liquid biopsy") offers numerous advantages not only for predicting treatment responses at baseline but also for monitoring patients on-therapy. Assessment of the tumor microenvironment and infiltrating immune cells also delivers important information on cancer-host interactions but the requirement for tumor tissues makes this more challenging, especially for monitoring sequential changes in the individual patient. In this contribution, we will review our findings on immune signatures potentially informative for clinical outcome in melanoma, breast cancer and renal cell carcinoma, particularly the outcome of checkpoint blockade, by applying multiparametric flow cytometry and mass cytometry, routine clinical monitoring and functional testing for predicting and following individual patient responses to therapy.
Frontiers in immunology. 2020 Jun 09*** epublish ***
Kilian Wistuba-Hamprecht, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Benjamin Weide, Graham Pawelec
Division of Dermatooncology, Department of Dermatology, University Medical Centre Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany., Immunoguiding Workgroup of the Cancer Immunotherapy Association (CIP/CIMT), Mainz, Germany., Department of Immunology, Institute for Cell Biology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.