Results of surgical treatment of inferior vena cava tumor thrombi in renal cell carcinoma.

Thrombosis of inferior vena cava (IVC) is an important complication amongst oncological patients. Tumor thrombus of IVC is characteristic for patients with renal cell carcinoma, occurring in 1018%. The aim of the work is to analyze of surgical treatment in patients with cancer thrombosis of inferior vena cava in kidney cancer.

Between 2010 and 2019 we treated 32 patients with kidney cancer complicated by thrombotic infiltration of the inferior vena cava. According to Nesbitt classification the levels of thrombotic infiltration of the inferior vena cava were: I-8 (25%), II-14 (43.8%), III-6 (18.8%), and IV-4 (12.5%). Nephrectomy with thrombectomy of the cancer thrombus in the inferior vena cava was performed in all patients. In addition to laparotomy, sternotomy was approached in 4 patients with Nesbitt IV and in 2 patients with Nesbitt III.

Primary suture of IVC was performed in 26 patients; angioplasty of IVC was performed in 4 patients; and resection of IVC with replacement using a polytetrafluoroethylene interposition graft was done in 2 patients. Radical surgical treatment was performed in 27 (84.3%) patients, and palliative in 5 (15.6%) patients. In the postoperative period, 1 (3.1%) patient (Nesbitt IV) died of cardiac failure during hospitalisation. Two-year survival was observed in 75% of the cases.

Tumorous infiltration of IVC is associated with a high potential for tumour embolisation to the lungs, leading to the formation of multiple metastases and spreading of the underlying disease. Postoperative comfort is improved considerably after nephrectomy of the affected kidney and removal of the tumour thrombus, including IVC resection as appropriate, and when combined with oncological treatment, the survival rate is increased significantly, as well.

Rozhledy v chirurgii : mesicnik Ceskoslovenske chirurgicke spolecnosti. 2020 Jan [Epub]

P Berek, I Kopolovets, V Sihotský, M Virág, C Dzsinich, M Frankovičová

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