Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is among the 10 most common cancers in the USA. One-third of the patients diagnosed with this cancer present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. In the past, advanced disease conferred poor survival outcomes; however, the treatment paradigm for RCC has been revolutionized twice since 2005. The initial wave of revolution came with the emergence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors and a second wave arose more recently with the emergence and unprecedented success of checkpoint inhibitors in RCC. A third wave combining these two strategies is well underway and likely represents the new paradigm to improve survival outcomes for afflicted patients. In this review, we discuss the current treatment landscape for patients with advanced RCC, focusing on approved VEGF and checkpoint inhibitors in the first-line setting as well as highlighting landmark combination clinical trials.
OncoTargets and therapy. 2020 May 13*** epublish ***
Abhay Singh, Inderpreet Singh, Namrata Singh, Igor Puzanov
Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA., Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA., Department of Medicine, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Punjab, India.