To estimate radiation dose and the associated risk of secondary cancer risk related to percutaneous cryoablation (PCA) and follow-up imaging in a cohort of patients treated for small renal masses (SRMs).
A total of 149 patients underwent PCA for a SRM at our institution. Based on CT dose reports, we calculated the mean effective dose for a CT-guided PCA procedure and post-ablative follow-up CT. Applying follow-up recommendations by a multidisciplinary expert panel, we calculated the total radiation dose for the PCA procedure and the CT surveillance program corresponding to a minimal and preferable follow-up regime (5-year vs 10-year). Estimates of the lifetime attributable cancer risk for different age groups were calculated based on the cumulative effective dose based on the latest BEIR VII report.
Total dose for the PCA treatment and follow-up CTs amounted to 174 and 294 mSv for a minimal and preferable protocol, respectively. Follow-up CTs accounted for the majority of the total effective dose for the minimal and preferable protocol (89% vs 94%). CT fluoroscopy contributed only to a limited amount of the total radiation dose for the minimal and preferable protocol (1.8% vs 1.1%). A 70-year-old male undergoing PCA treatment has a lifetime attributable cancer risk of 0.8% (1 in 131) when completing the preferable follow-up protocol. The same regimen in a 30-year-old female results in a lifetime attributable risk of cancer of 3.4% (1 in 29).
Radiation dose and the associated risk of secondary cancer are high for patients with SRMs undergoing PCA and post-ablative follow-up imaging in particular in younger patients. Radiation exposure in the PCA procedure itself accounts for only a limited amount of the total radiation. Radiologists and clinicians must strive to implement radiation dose saving measures especially with respect to the follow-up regime.
Abdominal radiology (New York). 2020 Apr 13 [Epub ahead of print]
Jens Borgbjerg, Thóra Bylling, Gratien Andersen, Jesper Thygesen, Anders Mikkelsen, Tommy K Nielsen
Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark. ., Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark., Medico/Technical Department, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.