Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) comprises a diverse group of malignancies arising from the nephron. The most prevalent type, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), is characterized by genetic mutations in factors governing the hypoxia signaling pathway, resulting in metabolic dysregulation, heightened angiogenesis, intratumoral heterogeneity, and deleterious tumor microenvironmental (TME) crosstalk.
Identification of specific genetic variances has led to therapeutic innovation and improved survival for patients with ccRCC. Current barriers to effective long-term therapeutic success highlight the need for continued drug development using improved modeling systems. ccRCC preclinical models can be grouped into three broad categories: cell line, mouse, and 3D models. Yet, the breadth of important unanswered questions in ccRCC research far exceeds the accessibility of model systems capable of carrying them out. Accordingly, we review the strengths, weaknesses, and therapeutic implications of each model system that are relied upon today.
Oncogene. 2020 Mar 02 [Epub ahead of print]
Melissa M Wolf, W Kimryn Rathmell, Kathryn E Beckermann
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA., Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 37232, USA. .