The engraftment of human tumor tissues into immunodeficient host mice to generate patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models has become increasingly utilized for many types of cancers. By capturing the unique genomic and molecular properties of the parental tumor, PDX models enable analysis of patient-specific clinical responses. PDX models are an important platform to address the contribution of inter-tumoral heterogeneity to therapeutic sensitivity, tumor evolution, and the mechanisms of treatment resistance. With the increasingly important role played by targeted therapies in urological malignancies, the establishment of representative PDX models can contribute to improved facilitation and adoption of precision medicine. In this review of the evolving role of the PDX in urothelial cancer and kidney cancer, we discuss the essential elements of successful graft development, effective translational application, and future directions for clinical models.
Cancers. 2020 Feb 13*** epublish ***
Andrew T Tracey, Katie S Murray, Jonathan A Coleman, Kwanghee Kim
Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA., Department of Surgery, Division of Urology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA., Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.