Early assessment with 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography to predict short-term outcome in clear cell renal carcinoma treated with nivolumab.

We reported previously the usefulness of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to predict prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with molecular targeted agents. Herein we describe a preliminary research of nine patients who underwent FDG-PET/CT before and after initiation of nivolumab.

Patients with metastatic RCC who were treated by nivolumab from October 2016 to March 2017 were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent FDG-PET/CT at baseline and 1 month as a first response assessment, and contrast-enhanced or non-contrast-enhanced CT scan at 4 month as a second response assessment. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association of potential predictors, including age, gender, baseline diameter, baseline maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), lung or not lung metastasis, elevation of SUVmax at 1st assessment, and decrease in diameter at 1st assessment with the response at 2nd assessment (decrease in the diameter ≥ 30% or not).

There were 9 patients and 30 lesions. Mean days of first assessment with FDG-PET/CT and second assessment by CT scan from initiation of treatment were 32.3 ± 6.4, 115.5 ± 14.9, respectively. Lesions whose diameter decreased ≥30% at second assessment were defined as responding, and lesions whose diameter did not decrease ≥30% were defined as non-responding. There were 18 responding lesions, and 12 non-responding lesions. We compared change in diameter and SUVmax at first assessment with FDG-PET/CT, respectively. All lesions with decreased diameter and elevated SUVmax at first assessment with FDG-PET/CT showed responding at second assessment by CT scan, while most lesions with increased diameter and declined SUVmax at first assessment showed non-responding at second assessment. The multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that only the elevation of SUVmax at 1 month was an independent predictor (P = 0.025, OR: 13.087, 95%CI: 1.373-124.716).

Our findings suggest that the early assessment using FDG-PET/CT can be effective to predict the response of RCC to nivolumab. However, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

Registered in University Hospital Medical Information Network in JAPAN [ UMIN0000008141 ], registration date: 11 Jun 2012.

BMC cancer. 2019 Apr 02*** epublish ***

Tadashi Tabei, Noboru Nakaigawa, Tomohiro Kaneta, Ichiro Ikeda, Keiichi Kondo, Kazuhide Makiyama, Hisashi Hasumi, Narihiko Hayashi, Takashi Kawahara, Koji Izumi, Kimito Osaka, Kentaro Muraoka, Jun-Ichi Teranishi, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Yasushi Yumura, Hiroji Uemura, Kazuki Kobayashi, Tomio Inoue, Masahiro Yao

Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan., Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan. ., Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan., Department of Urology, Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital, 1-21-1 Mutsuura Higashi, Kanazawa, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan., Department of Urology, Yokosuka Kyosai Hospital, 1-16 Yonegahama-Dori, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.

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