Gender-specific risk factors for renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review.

The relationship between gender and kidney cancer incidence/outcomes has been largely evaluated and may significantly impact the management of patients diagnosed with these tumors. We reviewed and summarized the most relevant recent publications reporting about this clinically meaningful relationship.

The incidence of kidney cancer is higher in men than in women. Male gender is clearly associated with more aggressive histological characteristics both in terms of tumor stage and grade. Similarly, male gender has been found to be associated with worse perioperative and oncological outcomes. Several genetic and molecular markers that may partly explain these observed differences have been evaluated. However, the impact of these markers on clinical practice has not been clearly demonstrated.

Gender is significantly associated with kidney cancer incidence, characteristics and outcomes. Future efforts are still needed to explore the biological and molecular basis underlying of this relationship.

Current opinion in urology. 2019 Mar 06 [Epub ahead of print]

Giovanni Lughezzani, Marco Paciotti, Vittorio Fasulo, Paolo Casale, Alberto Saita

Department of Urology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

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