To perform a systematic review of modifiable risk factors associated with the incidence of renal cell cancer (RCC). A systematic search of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases from January 1996 until August 2017. We also extracted articles from the reference lists of identified studies and reviews. We targeted modifiable risk factors for RCC to include exercise, smoking, alcohol, diet, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. We utilized predefined inclusion criteria and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis statement. We identified a total of 464 relevant articles and excluded 209 via title and 130 after abstract review. We thoroughly reviewed a total of 125 manuscripts. Seven supplementary tables describe (a) case controls and (b) prospective cohort studies. We summarize the tables in figures to visualize the overall impact of these studies association (beneficial, harmful, or null) with RCC. Total physical activity if beneficial (10/12 studies), smoking is harmful (13/14 studies), alcohol was protective (i.e., beneficial, 13/16 studies), diet was indeterminate (13 beneficial, 13 harmful, and 9 nulls), obesity and hypertension were overwhelmingly harmful (36/36 studies and 17/18, respectively), and diabetes was detrimental (23/27 studies). Modifiable risk factors play an essential role in the development of RCC, and we should develop targeted RCC prevention strategies in at-risk individuals.
Urologic oncology. 2019 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print]
Osamah Al-Bayati, Aws Hasan, Deepak Pruthi, Dharam Kaushik, Michael A Liss
Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX., Department of Internal Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY., Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX. Electronic address: .