Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoints is a new therapeutic tool in patients with locally advanced and metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The purpose of this review is to offer clinicians an updated translational insight into the current status of a therapeutic alternative that may impact significantly patient's life.
Immune checkpoint inhibition has recently demonstrated promising results in selected CCRCC patients with respect to tumor progression and survival. The decision to treat these patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) relies on the immunohistochemical detection of PD-1/PD-L1 positivity in inflammatory cells in the tumor, which makes the role of the pathologist crucial, but clinical concern upon the reliability to use immunohistochemistry (IHC) to predict therapeutic response is increasing. We review the state of the art of the immune checkpoint inhibition in CCRCC, from the basic science and its fundamentals to the daily application in clinical routine.
Current urology reports. 2019 Jan 15*** epublish ***
Caroline E Nunes-Xavier, Javier C Angulo, Rafael Pulido, José I López
Biomarkers in Cancer Unit, Biocruces-Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain., Department of Urology, University Hospital of Getafe, Getafe, Madrid, Spain., Biomarkers in Cancer Unit, Biocruces-Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain. .