Hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) drive angiogenesis and cancer cell growth, contributing to an aggressive tumor phenotype. HIF-α protein levels and activity are controlled at the post-translational level by HIF hydroxylases. Hydroxylated HIF-α is recognized by the von Hippel Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor and targeted for degradation. The HIF hydroxylases are members of the iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which require ascorbate as cofactor for activity. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC) harbor mutations in the VHL gene, whereas papillary RCC (pRCC) have a functional VHL. These natural occurring VHL variants in RCC enable the testing, in clinical samples, of the hypothesis that ascorbate modulates HIF-α levels through its role as a cofactor for the HIF hydroxylases. We measured ascorbate, HIF-1α, and HIF-2α protein and HIF downstream targets BNIP3, CA9, cyclin D1, GLUT1, and VEGF (combined to generate the HIF pathway score) in VHL-defective ccRCC (n = 73) and VHL-proficient pRCC human tumor tissue (n = 41). HIF and ascorbate levels were increased in ccRCC and pRCC tumors compared to matched renal cortex. HIF-1 and total HIF pathway activation scores were decreased with higher ascorbate in pRCC tumors (Spearman r = -0.38, p < 0.05 and r = -0.35, p < 0.05). This was not evident for ccRCC tumors. In mechanistic studies in vitro, ascorbate influenced HIF-1 activity in VHL-proficient, but not VHL-defective ccRCC cells. Our results indicate that ccRCC, which lacks a functional VHL, does not respond to ascorbate-mediated modulation of the HIF response. This contrasts with the demonstrated association between ascorbate content and the HIF pathway observed in pRCC and other tumors with a functional VHL. The results support a role for ascorbate as a modulator of HIF activity and tumor aggression in cancer types with a functional hypoxic response.
Frontiers in oncology. 2018 Nov 30*** epublish ***
Christina Wohlrab, Margreet C M Vissers, Elisabeth Phillips, Helen Morrin, Bridget A Robinson, Gabi U Dachs
Mackenzie Cancer Research Group, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand., Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology and Biomedical Science, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.