Recurrent renal cell carcinoma following nephrectomy and ablation therapy: Radiology perspective

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common renal malignancy, accounting for approximately 2% of adult malignancies and 4% of new cancer cases in the United States every year. Imaging guided ablative therapy, including radiofrequency (RF) ablation, cryotherapy and microwave has gained popularity over the last decade in treatment of small tumors. Antiangiogenic therapy has set itself to be the standard of care for many patients with metastasis these days. With hope for more research, survival rates of metastatic RCC may increase from a current 2-year survival rate of approximately 20%. Variation in imaging surveillance protocol in terms of frequency, modality, and duration is noted among guidelines developed by several organizations. In this review article, we will discuss follow-up imaging protocols, patterns of RCC recurrence following different modalities of treatment, imaging appearance, as well as usual and unusual sites of metastatic disease.

European journal of radiology. 2018 May 03 [Epub]

Osama Ali, Elliot K Fishman, Satomi Kawamoto

The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, 601 N. Caroline St, JHOC 3235A, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States. Electronic address: ., The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, 601 N. Caroline St, JHOC 3235A, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States. Electronic address: ., The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, 601 N. Caroline St, JHOC 3235A, Baltimore, MD 21287, United States. Electronic address: .