Carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP) is a heterogenous group of metastatic cancer with no detectable primary tumor site. Diagnostic assessment occasionally presents CUP with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma (mRCC) histologic and immunohistochemical characteristics (CUP-mRCC). Efficacy and toxicity data for vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor therapies in CUP-mRCC patients are few.
We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with CUP-mRCC at a single institution between 2007 and 2018. Treatment outcomes were assessed from initiation of renal-cell carcinoma-specific therapy, including response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.
Ten patients with CUP-mRCC were identified. Median age was 64 years. Histologies were clear-cell (30%), papillary type II (20%), and unclassified renal-cell (50%) carcinoma. International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk group were favorable, intermediate, and poor in 0, 40%, and 60%, respectively. One patient received empiric first-line chemotherapy. Targeted treatments were pazopanib (n = 7), sunitinib (n = 2), and sorafenib (n = 1). Objective response rate was 40%, progression-free survival was 2.5 months (95% confidence interval, 1.2-3.8), and overall survival was 5.7 months (95% confidence interval, 0-24.0). Stratified for International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium risk, overall survival in intermediate versus poor risk group were 18.6 months and 2.3 months, respectively. Second-line therapy did not result in disease control. No new or unexpected toxicities were observed.
CUP-mRCC treated with vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy is valid, feasible, and safe even though these patients had several negative prognostic factors. CUP-mRCC patients should be identified among CUP patients for specific renal-cell carcinoma therapy.
Clinical genitourinary cancer. 2018 Aug 28 [Epub ahead of print]
Anders Overby, Lone Duval, Morten Ladekarl, Britt Elmedal Laursen, Frede Donskov
Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark., Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address: .