Real-world evidence has played an important role in expanding our knowledge on the treatment and prognostication of advanced renal cell carcinoma. This type of data has been particularly helpful in providing a better understanding of groups that are traditionally excluded from randomized controlled trials. The International mRCC Database Consortium (IMDC) represents the largest collection of real-world data on patients with advanced kidney cancer treated with targeted therapies. The IMDC prognostic model has been used to stratify patients in contemporary clinical trials and to provide risk-directed treatment selection in everyday clinical practice. More recently, it has been shown to predict response to first-line combination immunotherapy in the phase III CheckMate 214 clinical trial. In this review, we highlight the real-world evidence associated with the treatment of mRCC. We focus on first-line therapy, as well as second-line and third-line therapeutic options, including novel immuno-oncology agents. We also address the real-world evidence for the use of cytoreductive nephrectomy in advanced renal cell carcinoma in the targeted therapy era.
Tumori. 2018 Mar 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Jeffrey Graham, Daniel Yc Heng
Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.