Renal cell carcinoma: a review of biology and pathophysiology

Over the past decade, our understanding of the biology and pathophysiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has improved significantly. Insight into the disease process has helped us in developing newer therapeutic approaches toward RCC. In this article, we review the various genetic and immune-related mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and development of this cancer and how that knowledge is being used to develop therapeutic targeted drugs for the treatment of RCC. The main emphasis of this review article is on the most common genetic alterations found in clear cell RCC and how various drugs are currently targeting such pathways. This article also looks at the role of the immune system in allowing the growth of RCC and how the immune system can be manipulated to reactivate cytotoxic immunity against RCC.

F1000Research. 2018 Mar 12*** epublish ***

Shahzaib Nabi, Elizabeth R Kessler, Brandon Bernard, Thomas W Flaig, Elaine T Lam

Division of Medical Oncology, Anschutz Medical Campus, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA.