Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) has seen substantial progress over the last decade. A number of targeted therapies have been shown to improve clinical outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are an effective option in treating mRCC. RCC is traditionally perceived to be a radioresistant malignancy with a limited role of radiotherapy (RT) in the management of localized disease. While RCC appears to be radioresistant using conventionally fractionated RT, preclinical data suggest increased radiosensitivity when an ablative, hypofractionated schedule is used. RT is a common treatment for metastases; therefore, it is important to understand how best to use the combination of RT with targeted therapies. Preclinical studies have suggested that the combination of anti-angiogenic drugs with RT enhances the therapeutic effect compared with ionizing radiation alone. However, clinical data gave rise to warnings due to an increased incidence of severe gastrointestinal side effects. This article reviews the literature behind the preclinical and clinical data of the combination of RT with VEGFR-TKIs currently approved for RCC (sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, and axitinib), with a focus on dose schedules as well as efficacy and toxicity.
Chemotherapy. 2018 Mar 19 [Epub ahead of print]
Michele Fiore, Rolando Maria D Apos Angelillo, Carlo Greco, Iacopo Fioroni, Edy Ippolito, Daniele Santini, Sara Ramella
Radiation Oncology, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy., Medical Oncology Unit, Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy.