Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in urothelial carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 in renal cell carcinoma, and sipuleucel-T in prostate cancer serve as enduring examples that the host immune response can be harnessed to promote effective anti-tumor immunity in genitourinary malignancies. Recently, cancer immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has transformed the prognostic landscape leading to durable responses in a subset of urothelial carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma patients with traditionally poor prognosis. Despite this success, many patients fail to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors and progression/relapse remains common. Furthermore, modest clinical activity has been observed with ICIs as a monotherapy in advanced PCa. As such, novel treatment approaches are warranted and improved biomarkers for patient selection and treatment response are desperately needed. Future efforts should focus on exploring synergistic and rational combinations that safely and effectively boost response rates and survival in genitourinary malignancies. Specific areas of interest include (1) evaluating the optimal sequencing, disease burden, and timing of immuno-oncology agents with other anti-cancer therapeutics and (2) validating novel biomarkers of response to immunotherapy to optimize patient selection and to identify individuals most likely to benefit from immunotherapy across the heterogenous spectrum of genitourinary malignancies.
Current treatment options in oncology. 2018 Mar 08*** epublish ***
Ariel E Marciscano, Ravi A Madan
Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive 13N240B, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA., Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 10 Center Drive 13N240B, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. .