Risk factors for bone metastasis from renal cell cancer

The prognosis for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is related to a high rate of metastasis, including 30% of bone metastasis. In this study, we investigate the correlation between diverse clinical factors and bone metastases secondary from renal cell cancer (RCC), and to identify potential risk factors for bone metastasis in newly diagnosed patients and those who have already received treatment.

The clinical data of 372 patients with RCC were reviewed from January 2000 to August 2016. The correlations between age, gender, histopathologic types, alkaline phosphotase (ALP), CEA, AFP, CA-125, CA-153, CA-199, calcium, hemoglobin (HB) and bone metastases were analyzed. And the risk factors for bone metastases in RCC were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the independent correlation factors were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

The bone is the second to the lung as a distant metastasis target site in patients with RCC. Thirty eight individuals were identified with bone metastases. Of these patients, significantly higher levels of ALP, calcium, HB were found than those without bone metastasis (P < 0.05, respectively). No significant differences were detected in CEA, AFP, CA-125, CA-153, CA-199, age, gender and histopathologic types between patients with and without bone metastases (P > 0.05, respectively). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that ALP, calcium and HB were independent risk factors correlated with bone metastasis (P < 0.05, respectively). ROC curves demonstrated these factors had comparable accuracy at predicting bone metastasis (AUC were 0.749, 0.633 and 0.665, respectively). The cutoff values of ALP, calcium and HB were 105.5 U/L, 2.615 mmol/L and 111.5 g/L, respectively. The sensitivities of them were 57.9%, 36.8% and 71.1% for predicting bone metastasis, with specificities of 83.5%, 95.2% and 65.3%, respectively.

Based on our study, the concentrations of ALP, calcium and HB were potentially risk factors for bone metastasis in patients with RCC. For newly diagnosed patients, if the values of ALP>105.5 U/L, calcium>2.615 mmol/L and HB<111.5 g/L were detected, intensive monitoring and bone scanning are warranted for them.

Journal of bone oncology. 2017 Nov 02*** epublish ***

Xuan-Yin Chen, Min Lan, Yang Zhou, Wen-Zhao Chen, Dong Hu, Jia-Ming Liu, Shan-Hu Huang, Zhi-Li Liu, Zhi-Hong Zhang

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 17 Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330006, PR China.


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