Uptake of Radium-223 Dichloride and Early [(18)F]NaF PET Response Are Driven by Baseline [(18)F]NaF Parameters: a Pilot Study in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients

The purpose of this study is to identify predictive factors on baseline [(18)F]NaF positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) of early response to radium-223 dichloride after 3 cycles of treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.

Analysis of 152 metastases was performed in six consecutive patients who underwent [(18)F]NaF PET/CT at baseline and for early monitoring after 3 cycles of radium-223 dichloride. All metastases depicted on whole-body [(18)F]NaF PET/CT were contoured and CT (density in Hounsfield units, sclerotic, mixed, or lytic appearance) as well as [(18)F]NaF [maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVmean, and lesion volume (V18F-NaF)] patterns were recorded. Tumor response was defined as percentage change in SUVmax and SUVmean between baseline and post-treatment PET. Bone lesions were defined as stable, responsive, or progressive, according to thresholds derived from a recent multicentre test-retest study in [(18)F]NaF PET/CT. Total [(18)F]NaF uptake in metastases, defined as MATV × SUVmean, was correlated to uptake of radium-223 on biodistribution scintigraphy performed 7 days after the first cycle of treatment.

Among metastases, 116 involved the axial skeleton and 36 the appendicular skeleton. Lesions were sclerotic in 126 cases and mixed in 26 cases. No lytic lesion was depicted. ROC analysis showed that SUVmax and SUVmean were better predictors of lesion response than V18F-NaF and density on CT (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001, respectively). SUVmax and SUVmean were predictors of individual tumor response in separate multivariate models (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). CT pattern (mixed versus sclerotic) and lesion density were independent predictors only when assessing response with delta SUVmax (P = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively). A good correlation between total [(18)F]NaF uptake within metastases and their relative radium-223 uptake assessed by two observers 7 days after treatment (r = 0.72 and 0.77, P < 0.0001) was found.

SUVmax and SUVmean on baseline [(18)F]NaF PET/CT are independent predictors of bone lesions' response to 3 cycles of radium-223 dichloride, supporting the use of NaF to select patients more likely to respond to treatment.

Molecular imaging and biology : MIB : the official publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging. 2017 Oct 12 [Epub ahead of print]

Arthur Letellier, Alison C Johnson, Nicolas How Kit, Jean-François Savigny, Alain Batalla, Jean-Jacques Parienti, Nicolas Aide

Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen University Hospital, 14000, Caen, France., Medical Oncology, François Baclesse Cancer Centre, Caen, France., Nuclear Medicine Department, François Baclesse Cancer Centre, Caen, France., Medical Physics, François Baclesse Cancer Centre, Caen, France., Clinical Research Unit, University Hospital, Caen, France., Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen University Hospital, 14000, Caen, France. .

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