Statins are cholesterol- lowering drugs that have been shown to possess anti-tumour properties. Observational studies have shown that 3-hydroxy-3-methlyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) use may be associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. Preclinical studies suggest that statins possess anticancer and radiosensitising properties. This review aims to determine the impact of statin use in the efficacy of radiation therapy and the therapeutic window in prostate cancer.
The scientific databases PubMed, Science Direct, EMBASE, Cochrane Collaboration, and Google Scholar were searched for articles identifying statin use in histologically confirmed prostate cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy.
Improvement was observed in freedom from biochemical failure (91% vs. 79%), relapse free survival (72% vs. 69%), distant metastasis free survival (96% vs. 94%), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse free survival (89% vs. 83%) with statin use, however this did not translate into an overall survival benefit for patients. Conflicting data concerning clinical outcomes reduce the integrity of these findings. The literature supports the radiosensitising properties of statins and their potential antitumor effects in prostate cancer.
Statin use in prostate cancer presents many obstacles yet to be overcome, which warrant attention prior to the routine implementation of statins in treatment regimes. However, there is evidence to support their beneficial use.
Anticancer research. 2017 Oct [Epub]
Jack Hutchinson, Laure Marignol
Applied Radiation Therapy Trinity, Discipline of Radiation Therapy, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland., Applied Radiation Therapy Trinity, Discipline of Radiation Therapy, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland .