Interfractional Rectal Displacement Requiring Repeated Precaution Did Not Correlate to Biochemical Control and Rectal Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Treated with Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy

To investigate the correlation between frequency of action level of interfractional rectal displacement requiring repeated precaution in patients with prostate cancer and late toxicity from image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) using helical tomotherapy.

We examined 264 patients who underwent IG-IMRT during 2007-2011. Megavoltage computed tomographic (MVCT) images were acquired before radiation therapy and was examined with soft-tissue matching by comparing treatment planning images within 9,345 fractions. Displacement of the anterior rectal region larger than 5 mm, requiring repeated precaution, was defined as the level of rectal displacement requiring action (ARD).

ARD was identified in 815 (7.7%) out of 9,345 fractions and at least once in 82% (216/264) of patients. The highest incidence of ARD (11%) was found during the initial week of treatment (first five and next five fractions), after which the incidence decreased to 6% (p<0.0001). Patients with lean body (lower body mass index (BMI) tended to have a higher incidence of ARD. We identified 16 (6%) cases of gastrointestinal toxicity and 12 (4.5%) genitourinary toxicities as a late adverse reaction (3 months or later after IG-IMRT). There was no correlation between ARD and late toxicity. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) control was also similar (p=0.12) between those with ARD (96% at 5 year) and those without ARD (88%).

ARD occurred predominantly in lean patients, during the initial week of treatment and became less likely over time. ARD was not correlated to late toxicity and PSA control, therefore, IG-IMRT technique was able to adequately control error due to interfractional prostate and rectal motion.

Anticancer research. 2017 Oct [Epub]

Kazuki Iwama, Hideya Yamazaki, Daisuke Shimizu, Gen Suzuki, Satoaki Nakamura, Naomi Sasaki, Tadashi Takeneka, Haruumi Okabe, Tatsuyuki Nishikawa, Ken Yoshida

Department of Radiology, Ujitakeda Hospital, Uji, Japan., Department of Radiology, Ujitakeda Hospital, Uji, Japan ., Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kamigyo, Japan., Department of Radiology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Japan.