Active surveillance for localized prostate cancer: update of a prospective single-center cohort

The purpose of active surveillance (AS) is to reduce overtreatment of men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) without compromising survival. The objective of this study was to update a large Scandinavian single-center AS cohort. Furthermore, the use of curative treatment and subsequent risk of biochemical recurrence were investigated and compared in men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa in the cohort.

In total, 451 men were followed on AS and monitored with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations and rebiopsies. Recommendation of curative treatment was based on protocolled and predefined risk of progression criteria. Biochemical recurrence was defined as PSA ≥0.2 ng/ml after radical prostatectomy and PSA nadir +2 ng/ml after radiotherapy.

Altogether, 34% were defined with very low-risk PCa, 40% with low-risk PCa and 24% with intermediate-risk PCa. The median follow-up was 5.1 years. The estimated 5 year curatively intended treatment-free survival was 60.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 54.8-66.2%], with no statistically significant difference between men with very low-risk, low-risk or intermediate-risk PCa. The 5 year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 92.3% (95% CI 87.4-97.2), again with no difference between men with very low-risk, low-risk and intermediate-risk PCa.

AS for very low- to low-risk localized PCa is feasible and safe within the short to intermediate time frame. Men with intermediate-risk PCa had the same risk of undergoing curative treatment as men with low-risk PCa, without compromising biochemical recurrence-free survival.

Scandinavian journal of urology. 2017 Sep 28 [Epub ahead of print]

Mathias Thostrup, Frederik B Thomsen, Peter Iversen, Klaus Brasso

a Copenhagen Prostate Cancer Center, Department of Urology , Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.