There is an increasing evidence for a link between nutrition, lifestyle and prostate cancer (PCa) development and/or progression of disease. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary factors and PCa incidence and aggressiveness in a case-control study. After the analysis of the anatomic pathology, subjects were classified in patients with PCa (n = 157) and controls (n = 158). Clinical data including Gleason score, PSA values and biopsy results, were compiled. Frequencies of food consumption and sociodemographic data were also obtained. The results showed that physical activity was significantly higher in control (p < .022). It was also found that some nutritional habits offer a protective effect among studied subjects, like high nuts (p = .041) and fish (p = .041) intakes. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in risk (p = .029) in cases with a higher fruits and vegetables intakes. A decreased risk of aggressive PCa was associated with fruits, vegetables, legumes and fish intakes. However, these relationships were not statistically significant when data were adjusted for covariates. In conclusion, this study found an inverse association between PCa risk and the intake of fruits and vegetables, fish and nuts. The results suggested that a diet with higher intakes of these foods as Mediterranean diet may lower the risk of PCa in the studied population. As dietary factors are modifiable, identifying food groups or dietary patterns that modulate the risk of PCa and its aggressiveness can offer effective and practical strategies for its primary prevention.
The aging male : the official journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male. 2017 Sep 20 [Epub ahead of print]
Manrique Pascual-Geler, Noelia Urquiza-Salvat, Jose Manuel Cozar, Inmaculada Robles-Fernandez, Ana Rivas, Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez, Francisco Manuel Ocaña-Peinado, Jose Antonio Lorente, Maria Jesus Alvarez-Cubero
a Service of Urology , University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves , Granada , Spain., b Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Faculty of Pharmacy , University of Granada , Granada , Spain., c GENYO , Pfizer-University of Granada-Andalusian Government Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research , Granada , Spain., d Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Faculty of Pharmacy , University of Granada , Granada , Spain.