Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is an attractive target for both diagnosis and therapy because of its high expression in the vast majority of prostate cancers. Development of small molecules for targeting PSMA is important for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy of prostate cancer. Recent evidence implies that androgen-deprivation therapy increase PSMA-ligand uptake in some cases. The reported upregulations in PSMA-ligand uptake after exposure to second-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide and abiraterone might disturb PSMA-targeted imaging for staging and response monitoring of patients undergoing treatment with antiandrogen-based drugs. On the other hand, second-generation antiandrogens are emerging as potential endoradio-/chemosensitizers. Therefore, the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of PSMA-targeted theranostic methods can be listed as a new capability of antiandrogens. In this manuscript, we will present what is currently known about the mechanism of increasing PSMA uptake following exposure to antiandrogens. In addition, we will discuss whether these above-mentioned antiandrogens could play the role of endoradio-/chemosensitizers in combination with the well-established PSMA-targeted methods for pre-targeting of prostate cancer.
Nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2016 Aug 06 [Epub]
Martin K Bakht, So Won Oh, Hyewon Youn, Gi Jeong Cheon, Cheol Kwak, Keon Wook Kang
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, 110-744 Korea., Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.