Survival Outcomes in Octogenarian and Nonagenarian Patients Treated with First-line Androgen Deprivation Therapy for Organ-confined Prostate Cancer

The use of primary androgen deprivation therapy (PADT) is common in elderly men with early-stage prostate cancer (PCa), despite the absence of guideline recommendations.

To examine survival patterns of octo- and nonagenarian men with organ-confined PCa exposed to PADT, to assess whether their life expectancy warrants androgen deprivation therapy use.

In the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked database, we identified 14 785 octo- and nonagenarian organ-confined PCa patients treated with PADT between 1991 and 2009.

The smoothed cumulative incidence method was used to examine 10-yr overall mortality, cancer-specific mortality (CSM), and other-cause mortality (OCM) rates. Multivariable Cox regression analyses focused on the combined effect of age and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) after adjusting for different confounders.

Of all the deaths observed during the study period, 80% were due to non-cancer causes and 20% were due to PCa. The 10-yr overall survival (OS) rate in the overall population was 15.4%. The 10-yr OS rates ranged from 19.9% in patients aged 80-84 yr to 3.1% in those aged ≥90 yr. Similarly, the 10-yr OS rates ranged from 18.7% in patients with CCI=0 to 11.5% in those with CCI≥2. The 10-yr OCM rate in the overall population was 68.2%. The 10-yr OCM rates ranged from 64.6% in patients aged 80-84 yr to 77.2% in patients aged ≥90 yr. Similarly, the 10-yr OCM rates ranged from 62.1% in patients with CCI=0 to 75.2% in those with CCI≥2. The 10-yr CSM rate in the overall population was 16.4%. The 10-yr CSM rates ranged from 15.5% in patients aged 80-84 yr to 19.7% in those aged ≥90 yr, and from 19.2% in patients with CCI=0 to 13.3% in those with CCI≥2.

Of the elderly patients with organ-confined PCa exposed to PADT, only 15% survive at 10-yr follow-up. Mortality related to non-cancer causes is the leading cause of death in the same follow-up period. These figures question the rationale for PADT in elderly men with organ-confined PCa.

In this study, we looked at the survival patterns of octo- and nonagenarians treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy for organ-confined prostate cancer. We found that a small proportion of patients who received primary androgen deprivation therapy remain alive at 10-yr follow-up, and the leading cause of death was not attributable to prostate cancer.

European urology focus. 2017 Feb 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Paolo Dell'Oglio, Mohamed Bishr, Katharina Boehm, Vincent Trudeau, Alessandro Larcher, Zhe Tian, Josè Sosa, Marco Moschini, Fred Saad, Umberto Capitanio, Alberto Briganti, Markus Graefen, Francesco Montorsi, Pierre I Karakiewicz

Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada; Division of Oncology/Unit of Urology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: ., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada; Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada; Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Division of Oncology/Unit of Urology, Urological Research Institute, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada; Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada., Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Center, Montreal, Canada., Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

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