Background Active surveillance (AS) of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) is an accepted alternative to active treatment. However, the conventional diagnostic trans-rectal ultrasound guided biopsies (TRUS-bx) underestimate PCa aggressiveness in almost half of the cases, when compared with the surgical specimen. Purpose To investigate if additional multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate and MRI-guided in-bore biopsies (MRGB) at AS inclusion would improve selection of patients for active treatment. Material and Methods All patients enrolled in AS programs at two Danish centers, from October 2014 to January 2016, were offered an mpMRI 8-12 weeks after the initial diagnostic TRUS-bx. Candidates had low-risk disease (PSA < 10 ng/mL, <cT2b, Gleason score [GS] < 7). Prostate lesions were scored on the five-point PIRADS scale (version 1 and 2). MRGB were performed on PIRADS 4 or 5 lesions. Significant cancer was defined as GS > 6 or GS 6 (3 + 3) lesions with ≥ 6 mm maximal cancer core length (MCCL). Results A total of 78 patients were included and in 21 patients a total of 22 PIRADS-score 4 or 5 lesions were detected. MRGB pathology revealed that 17 (81%) of these and 22% of the entire AS population harbored significant cancers at AS inclusion. In eight (38%) cases, the GS was upgraded. Also, nine patients (43%) had GS 6 (3 + 3) foci with MCCL ≥ 6 mm. Conclusion In an AS cohort based on TRUS and TRUS-bx diagnostic strategies, supplemental mpMRI and in-bore MRGB were able to efficiently reclassify a substantial number of patients as candidates for immediate active treatment.
Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987). 2017 Jan 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Maria Carlsen Elkjær, Morten Heebøll Andersen, Søren Høyer, Bodil Ginnerup Pedersen, Michael Borre
1 Department of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark., 2 Department of Urology, Regional Hospital of West Jutland, Holstebro, Denmark., 3 Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, NBG, Denmark., 4 Department of Radiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark.