A Pooled Analysis of 15 Prospective Cohort Studies on the Association Between Fruit, Vegetable, and Mature Bean Consumption and Risk of Prostate Cancer

Relationships between fruit, vegetable, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk are unclear.

We examined associations between fruit and vegetable groups, specific fruits and vegetables, and mature bean consumption and prostate cancer risk overall, by stage and grade, and for prostate cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohorts, including 52,680 total cases and 3,205 prostate cancer deaths among 842,149 men. Diet was measured by a food frequency questionnaire or similar instrument at baseline. We calculated study-specific relative risks using Cox proportional hazards regression, and then pooled these estimates using a random effects model.

We did not observe any statistically significant associations for advanced prostate cancer or prostate cancer mortality with any food group (including total fruits and vegetables, total fruits, total vegetables, fruit and vegetable juice, cruciferous vegetables, and tomato products), nor specific fruit and vegetables. Additionally, we observed few statistically significant results for other prostate cancer outcomes. Pooled multivariable relative risks comparing the highest versus lowest quantiles across all fruit and vegetable exposures and prostate cancer outcomes ranged from 0.89 to 1.09. There was no evidence of effect modification for any association by age or body mass index.

Results from this large, international, pooled analysis do not support a strong role of fruits, vegetables (including cruciferous vegetables and tomato products, although few studies assessed tomato sources of more bioavailable lycopene, the potential cancer preventive agent in tomatoes), or mature beans in prostate cancer.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. 2017 Apr 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Joshua Petimar, Kathryn M Wilson, Kana Wu, Molin Wang, Demetrius Albanes, Piet A van den Brandt, Michael B Cook, Graham G Giles, Edward L Giovannucci, Gary G Goodman, Phyllis J Goodman, Niclas Håkansson, Kathy Helzlsouer, Timothy J Key, Laurence N Kolonel, Linda M Liao, Satu Männistö, Marjorie L McCullough, Roger L Milne, Marian L Neuhouser, Yikyung Park, Elizabeth A Platz, Elio Riboli, Norie Sawada, Jeannette M Schenk, Shoichiro Tsugane, Bas Verhage, Ying Wang, Lynne R Wilkens, Alicja Wolk, Regina G Ziegler, Stephanie A Smith-Warner

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health ., Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health., Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health., Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH., Department of Epidemiology, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH., Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria., Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center., SWOG Statistical Center., Division of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet., Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health., Cancer Epidemiology Unit Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford., Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Hawaii., Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare., Epidemiology Research Program, American Cancer Society., Division of Public Health Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine., School of Public Health, Imperial College., Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center., Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center.