This review summarizes the main pathophysiological basis of the relationship between metabolic syndrome, endocrine disruptor exposure and prostate cancer that is the most common cancer among men in industrialized countries. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and hormonal factors having a central role in the initiation and recurrence of many western chronic diseases including hormonal-related cancers and it is considered as the world's leading health problem in the coming years. Many biological factors correlate metabolic syndrome to prostate cancer and this review is aimed to focus, principally, on growth factors, cytokines, adipokines, central obesity, endocrine abnormalities and exposure to specific endocrine disruptors, a cluster of chemicals, to which we are daily exposed, with a hormone-like structure influencing oncogenes, tumor suppressors and proteins with a key role in metabolism, cell survival and chemo-resistance of prostate cancer cells. Finally, this review will analyze, from a molecular point of view, how specific foods could reduce the relative risk of incidence and recurrence of prostate cancer or inhibit the biological effects of endocrine disruptors on prostate cancer cells. On the basis of these considerations, prostate cancer remains a great health problem in terms of incidence and prevalence and interventional studies based on the treatment of metabolic syndrome in cancer patients, minimizing exposure to endocrine disruptors, could be a key point in the overall management of this disease.
Oncotarget. 2017 Mar 30 [Epub ahead of print]
Vincenzo Quagliariello, Sabrina Rossetti, Carla Cavaliere, Rossella Di Palo, Elvira Lamantia, Luigi Castaldo, Flavia Nocerino, Gianluca Ametrano, Francesca Cappuccio, Gabriella Malzone, Micaela Montanari, Daniela Vanacore, Francesco Jacopo Romano, Raffaele Piscitelli, Gelsomina Iovane, Maria Filomena Pepe, Massimiliano Berretta, Carmine D'Aniello, Sisto Perdonà, Paolo Muto, Gerardo Botti, Gennaro Ciliberto, Bianca Maria Veneziani, Francesco De Falco, Piera Maiolino, Michele Caraglia, Maurizio Montella, Rosario Vincenzo Iaffaioli, Gaetano Facchini
Progetto ONCONET2.0 - Linea progettuale 14 per l'implementazione della prevenzione e diagnosi precoce del tumore alla prostata e testicolo - Regione Campania, Italy., Epidemiology Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori 'Fondazione Giovanni Pascale' - IRCCS, Napoli, Italy., Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology , Istituto Nazionale Tumori 'Fondazione G. Pascale' - IRCCS, Naples, Italy., Department of Medical Oncology, CRO Aviano, National Cancer Institute, Aviano, Italy., Division of Urology, Department of Uro-Gynaecological Oncology , Istituto Nazionale Tumori 'Fondazione G. Pascale' - IRCCS, Naples, Italy., Radiation Oncology, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori 'Fondazione Giovanni Pascale' - IRCCS, Napoli, Italy., Pathology Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Fondazione G. Pascale"-IRCCS, Naples, Italy., Scientific Directorate, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori 'Fondazione Giovanni Pascale' - IRCCS, Napoli, Italy., Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnologies, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy., Psicology Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori 'Fondazione Giovanni Pascale' - IRCCS, Napoli, Italy., Pharmacy Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Istituto Nazionale Tumori-Fondazione G. Pascale Naples, Italy., Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and General Pathology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy., Medical Oncology, Abdominal Department, National Cancer Institute G. Pascale Foundation, Napoli, Italy.