(68) Ga-PSMA-PET for radiation treatment planning in prostate cancer recurrences after surgery: Individualized medicine or new standard in salvage treatment

(68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging is a novel promising diagnostic tool to locate early biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP) in prostate cancer (PC) patients. Exact knowledge of the relapse location may result in changes of the therapy concept aside from changes to the TNM stage.

To gain data for this approach, we evaluated PC patients receiving (68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging before salvage radiotherapy (RT).

In this study, 100 patients with biochemical failure after RP± prior RT who underwent (68) Ga-PSMA PET/CT or PET/MRI were evaluated undergoing salvage RT in our department. We analyzed TNM staging changes due to (68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging and its influence on RT planning and treatment.

Uptake indicative for tumor recurrence in (68) Ga-PSMA-PET was found in 76% of the patients with biochemical recurrent PC. Median PSA level was 1.0 ng/mL (range 0.12-14.7 ng/mL). Of these, 80% showed no morphological correlate in the corresponding CT or MRI. A 43% of all patients experienced a change in TNM stage due to (68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging. Patients had changes from Tx to rcT+ (28%), 12% from pN0 to rcN1, 1% from pN0/cM0 to rcM1a, and 8% from cM0 to rcM1b. Due to the additional knowledge of (68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging, initial planned RT planning was adapted in 59% of all cases. An additional simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the prostate bed or lymph nodes was given to 32% and 63%, respectively. Ten patients received stereotactic body RT (SBRT) to single bone metastases.

(68) Ga-PSMA-PET imaging showed a high clinical impact on staging and RT management in patients with biochemically recurrent PC, even at low serum PSA levels. With 43% changes in staging and 59% in radiotherapy planning (68) Ga-PSMA-PET could lead to an indispensable tool in guiding radiation treatment in recurrent PC.

The Prostate. 2017 Mar 20 [Epub ahead of print]

Gregor Habl, Katharina Sauter, Kilian Schiller, Sabrina Dewes, Tobias Maurer, Matthias Eiber, Stephanie E Combs

Department of Radiation Oncology, Technical University of Munich (TUM), Munich, Germany., Department of Urology, Technical University Munich (TUM), Munich, Germany., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technical University Munich (TUM), Munich, Germany.