Comparison of standard and delayed imaging to improve the detection rate of [(68)Ga]PSMA I&T PET/CT in patients with biochemical recurrence or prostate-specific antigen persistence after primary therapy for prostate cancer.

The aim of this study was to assess the value of dual-time point imaging in PET/CT for detection of biochemically recurrent or persistent prostate cancer, using the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand [(68)Ga]PSMA I&T.

240 patients who underwent a [(68)Ga]PSMA I&T PET/CT in the context of biochemical relapse of prostate cancer were included in this retrospective analysis. Imaging consisted of a standard whole-body PET/CT (1 h p.i.), followed by delayed (3 h p.i.) imaging of the abdomen. PSA-stratified proportions of positive PET/CT results, standardized uptake values and target-to-background ratios were analyzed, and compared between standard and delayed imaging.

The overall detection rates of [(68)Ga]PSMA I&T PET/CT were 94.2, 71.8, 58.6, 55.9 and 38.9% for PSA levels of ≥2, 1 to <2, 0.5 to <1, >0.2 to <0.5, and 0.01 to 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. Although the target-to-background ratio improved significantly over time (P < 0.0001), the majority (96.6%) of all lesions suggestive of recurrent disease could already be detected in standard imaging. Delayed imaging at 3 h p.i. exclusively identified pathologic findings in 5.4% (10/184) of abnormal [(68)Ga]PSMA I&T PET/CT scans, and exclusively detected 3.4% (38/1134) of all lesions suggestive of recurrent disease.

[(68)Ga]PSMA I&T PET/CT shows high detection rates in patients with prostate-specific antigen persistence or biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Delayed imaging can detect lesions with improved contrast compared to standard imaging. However, the impact on detection rates was limited in this study.

European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 2017 Mar 09 [Epub ahead of print]

Sebastian Schmuck, Stefan Nordlohne, Christoph-A von Klot, Christoph Henkenberens, Jan M Sohns, Hans Christiansen, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Thorsten Derlin

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625, Hannover, Germany., Department of Urology and Urologic Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany., Department of Radiation Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany., Pharmaceutical Radiochemistry, Technische Universität München|, Garching, Germany., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625, Hannover, Germany. .