Prostate cancer heterogeneity: Discovering novel molecular targets for therapy

Prostate cancer (PCa) shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behavior, which represents the epiphenomenon of an extreme genetic heterogeneity. Recent genomic profiling studies have deeply improved the knowledge of the genomic landscape of localized and metastatic PCa. The AR and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways are the two most frequently altered, representing therefore interestingly targets for therapy. Moreover, somatic or germline aberrations of DNA repair genes (DRGs) have been observed at high frequency, supporting the potential role of platinum derivatives and PARP inhibitors as effective therapeutic strategies. In the future, the identification of driver mutations present at a specific stage of the disease, the classification PCa based on specific molecular alterations, and the selection of the most appropriate therapy based on biomarkers predictors of response represent the foundations for an increasingly more accurate personalized medicine.

Cancer treatment reviews. 2017 Feb 11 [Epub ahead of print]

Chiara Ciccarese, Francesco Massari, Roberto Iacovelli, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Rodolfo Montironi, Vincenzo Di Nunno, Francesca Giunchi, Matteo Brunelli, Giampaolo Tortora

Medical Oncology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, University of Verona, Verona, Italy., Division of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: ., Pathology Service, Addarii Institute of Oncology, S-Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy., Section of Pathological Anatomy, Polytechnic University of the Marche Region, School of Medicine, AOU Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy., Division of Oncology, S.Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy., Department of Pathology and Diagnostic, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata (AOUI), University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

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