Methods: Thirty-eight patients with peripheral zone prostate cancer underwent 3-T MRI using an external-array coil and a diffusion-weighted image sequence acquired for b = 0, as well as along 12 noncollinear gradient directions for b = 500 s/mm2 using stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). For this sequence, 6 diffusion times ranging from 20.8 to 350 milliseconds were acquired. Tumors were classified as low-grade (Gleason score [GS] 3 + 3; n = 11), intermediate-grade (GS 3 + 4; n = 16), and high-grade (GS >=4 + 3; n = 11). Benign peripheral zone and transition zone were also studied.
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Conclusions: There is a measurable time dependence of ADC in prostate cancer, which is dependent on the underlying tissue and Gleason score. Therefore, there may be an optimal selection of t for prediction of tumor grade using ADC. Controlling t should allow ADC to achieve greater reproducibility between different sites and vendors. Intentionally varying t enables targeted exploration of D(t), a previously overlooked biophysical phenomenon in the prostate. Its further microstructural understanding and modeling may lead to novel diffusion-derived biomarkers. Investigative Radiology:2017 Feb 9. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0000000000000356. [Epub ahead of print] Copyright (C) 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.
Lemberskiy, Gregory MS 1; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B. MD; Veraart, Jelle PhD; Taneja, Samir S. MD; Novikov, Dmitry S. PhD; Fieremans, Els PhD.
1From the *Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, and †Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine; and ‡Division of Urologic Oncology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.
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