In the 2014, The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) consensus conference update the grading of prostate, last revised in 2005. In this study we evaluate the SOCS3 immunohistochemical protein expression in different Gleason prostatic adenocarcinoma: classical Gleason grade 3, classical Gleason grade 3 upgraded to Gleason grade 4 according to the ISUP modifications and classical and modified Gleason grade 4. The major conclusions were: (i) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (ii) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (iii) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than all as pattern 4; and (iv) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not assigned Gleason grade and a comment about aggressive carcinoma probably associated should be made. In a recent report we analyzed the methylathion status of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins 3 (SOCS3) gene and the consequences of promoter hypermethylation on mRNA and protein expression in a collection of prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and for the first time we demonstrated that a hypermethylation of SOCS3 with a significant reduction of its mRNA and protein expression identifies a subgroup of prostate cancer with a more aggressive behavior. Moreover we demonstrated that the immunohystochemical analysis of SOCS3 protein expression in prostatic cancer biopsies may provide a useful and easier method than SOCS3 methylation analysis to individuate in cancer with intermediate-high grade Gleason score a subgroup of prostate cancer with a more aggressive behavior.
A total of 148 radical prostatectomy with diagnosis of prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma were stratified into three different categories on the basis of Gleason grade: (i) Twenty-six prostatic adenocarcinoma with classical and modified Gleason grade 3; (ii) Fifty seven prostatic adenocarcinoma with classical Gleason grade 3 upgraded to Gleason grade 4 by 2005 and 2014 ISUP Consensus Conference; and (iii) Sixty five prostatic adenocarcinoma with classical and modified Gleason grade 4. Immunohistochemical analysis for SOCS3 was performed and SOCS3 staining intensity were evaluated by two pathologists in three different ways on the basis of the intensity of cytoplasmatic staining: positive (intense cytoplasmatic staining in more than 50% of neoplastic cells) (+), negative (absence of cytoplasmatic staining in more than 50% of neoplastic cells) (-), weakly positive (weak cytoplasmatic staining in more than 50% of neoplastic cells (+/-).
In the group of prostatic adenocarcinoma Gleason grade 3 we found that SOCS3 positivity (+) were observed in 19 out of 26 cases (73.1%); in 5 out of 26 prostatic adenocarcinoma the neoplastic glands showed weak intensity SOCS3 staining (+/-) (19.2%), while in only two cases we found SOCS-3 negativity (-) (7.7%); in the group of cases with prostatic adenocarcinoma with Gleason grade 4, 16 out 65 cases (24.6%) showed SOCS3 positivity (+); 18 out 65 cases (27.7%) SOCS3 weakly positive (+/-), and in 31 cases (47.7%) SOCS3 negative staining (-) were observed. Interestingly, the group of prostatic adenocarcinoma with histological Gleason 3 pattern upgraded to Gleason 4 pattern according to the 2005 and 2014 ISUP modified grading system, showed SOCS3 positivity (+) in 16 out of 57 cases (28%), in 16 out 57 cases (28%) a weakly positive for SOCS3 (+/-) were observed, while 25 cases (44%) showed negative SOCS3 staining (-).
In this study we demonstrated a significant association of SOCS3 positivity (+) with prostatic carcinoma classical Gleason pattern 3 (P < 0.0001), while SOCS3 negative pattern (-) or SOCS3 weakly positive pattern (+/-) were associated to prostatic carcinomas with Gleason pattern 3 upgraded to Gleason pattern 4 (P = 0.0002) and with classical Gleason pattern 4. The significant difference of SOCS3 immunohistochemical expression between classical Gleason grade 3 and Gleason grade 4 upgraded to grade 4 seems to support the definitions and the modifications of Gleason grade 4 of the 2005 and the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP). The hypoexpression of SOCS3 protein in glomeruloid glands could support the hypothesis that from molecular point of view this growth pattern could be different from classical Gleason pattern 3 and biologically more closely to Gleason pattern 4, confirming the conclusions of the 2014 ISUP Conference assigning a Gleason pattern 4 to glomeruloid glands regardless of morphology. Prostate 9999: 1-7, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The Prostate. 2017 Feb 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Francesco Pierconti, Maurizio Martini, Tonia Cenci, Gian Luigi Petrone, Riccardo Ricci, Emilio Sacco, Pier Francesco Bassi, Luigi Maria Larocca
Department of Pathology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy., Department of Urology, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy.