Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is now considered a mainstay in the treatment of metastatic and locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Despite well-established benefits of ADT in relation to overall survival, this treatment has been associated with a number of adverse effects, particularly with regard to key cardiometabolic risk factors including the development of insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and increases in total and regional fat mass. In non-ADT populations, increased levels of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are thought to be a key mediator of the increased cardiometabolic risk associated with weight gain, but this has received limited attention in men treated with ADT. VAT is best assessed using tools such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, however these tools are not readily accessible for the majority of researchers or clinicians. Recent advances allow for a method of estimating VAT using a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan that shows promise as a practical tool for researchers to evaluate changes in body fat distribution during ADT. The aim of this narrative review is to (1) review the available evidence with regard to the relationship between ADT and cardiometabolic risk; (2) discuss the role of body fat distribution on cardiometabolic risk in non-ADT populations, with a particular emphasis on the importance of visceral adiposity; (3) examine the potential influence of ADT on body fat distribution and visceral adiposity, and (4) provide an overview of current tools used to measure changes in body fat distribution in men treated with ADT, highlighting the potential utility of a recently developed DXA-derived measure of VAT.
Endocrine-related cancer. 2017 Jan 06 [Epub ahead of print]
Stephen John Foulkes, Robin M Daly, Steve Fraser
S Foulkes, Institution of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University Faculty of Health, Burwood, Australia ., R Daly, Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University Faculty of Health, Burwood, Australia., S Fraser, Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University Faculty of Health, Burwood, Australia.