Evaluation of tumor recurrences after radical prostatectomy using 18F-Choline PET/CT and 3T multiparametric MRI without endorectal coil: a single center experience.

To evaluate and compare the utility of 18F-fluorocholine (18F-CH) PET/CT versus 3-Tesla multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) without endorectal coil to detect tumor recurrences in patients with biochemical relapse following radical prostatectomy (RP). Secondarily, to identify possible prognostic variables associated with mpMRI and 18F-CH PET/CT findings.

Retrospective study of 38 patients who developed biochemical recurrence after RP between the years 2011 and 2015 at our institution. PET/CT and mpMRI were both performed within 30 days of each other in all patients. The PET/CT was reviewed by a nuclear medicine specialist while the mpMRI was assessed by a radiologist, both of whom were blinded to outcomes.

The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value pre-MRI/PET-CT was 0.9 ng/mL (interquartile range 0.4-2.2 ng/mL). There were no differences in the detection rate between 18F-CH PET/CT and mpMRI for local recurrence (LR), lymph node recurrence (LNR) and bone metastases (BM). Separately, mpMRI and 18F-CH PET/CT were positive for recurrence in 55.2% and 52.6% of cases, respectively, and in 65.7% of cases when findings from both modalities were considered together. The detection of LR was better with combined mpMRI and choline PET/CT versus choline PET/CT alone (34.2% vs 18.4%, p = 0.04). Salvage treatment was modified in 22 patients (57.8%) based on the imaging findings. PSA values on the day of biochemical failure were significantly associated with mpMRI positivity (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 30.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-635.8). Gleason score > 7 was significantly associated with PET/CT positivity (OR: 13.9; 95% CI: 1.5-125.6). A significant association was found between PSA doubling time (PSADT) (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.7), T stage (OR: 21.1; 95% CI: 1.6-272.1), and LR.

Multiparametric MRI and 18F-CH PET/CT yield similar detection rates for LR, LNR and pelvic BM. The combination of both imaging techniques provides a better LR detection versus choline PET/CT alone. The initially planned salvage treatment was modified in 57.8% of patients due to imaging findings. In addition to PSA values, Gleason score, T stage, and PSADT may provide valuable data to identify those patients that are most likely to benefit from undergoing both imaging procedures.

Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society. 2016 Jan 07*** epublish ***

Felipe Couñago, Manuel Recio, Antonio Maldonado, Elia Del Cerro, Ana Aurora Díaz-Gavela, Israel J Thuissard, David Sanz-Rosa, Francisco José Marcos, Karmele Olaciregui, María Mateo, Laura Cerezo

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Quiron Madrid, Calle Diego de Velazquez, 1, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain. ., Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Quiron, Madrid, Spain., Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Quiron, Madrid, Spain., Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Quiron Madrid, Calle Diego de Velazquez, 1, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain., School of Doctoral Studies and Research, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain., Clinical Department, School of Biomedical Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain., Hospital Universitario Quiron, Madrid, Spain., Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario La Princesa, Madrid, Spain.