Functional Outcomes and Quality of Life After Radical Prostatectomy Only Versus a Combination of Prostatectomy with Radiation and Hormonal Therapy.

While the optimal use and timing of secondary therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP) remain controversial, there are limited data on patient-reported outcomes following multimodal therapy.

To assess the impact of additional radiation therapy (RT) and/or androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on urinary continence, potency, and quality of life (QoL) after RP.

Among 13150 men who underwent RP from 1992 to 2013, 905 received RP + RT, 407 RP + ADT and 688 RP + RT + ADT.

Urinary function, sexual function, and overall QoL were evaluated annually using self-administered validated questionnaires. Propensity score-matched and bootstrap analyses were performed, and the distributions for all functional outcomes were analyzed as a function of time after RP.

Patients who received RP + RT had a 4% higher overall incontinence rate 3 yr after surgery, and 1% higher rate for severe incontinence (>3 pads/24h) compared to matched RP-only patients. ADT further increased the overall and severe incontinence rates by 4% and 3%, respectively, compared to matched RP + RT patients. RP + RT was associated with an 18% lower rate of potency compared to RP alone, while RP + RT + ADT was associated with a further 17% reduction compared to RP + RT. Additional RT reduced QoL by 10% and additional ADT by a further 12% compared to RP only and RP + RT, respectively. The timing of RT after RP had no influence on continence, but adjuvant compared to salvage RT was associated with significantly lower potency (37% vs 45%), but higher QoL (60% vs 56%). Limitations of our study include the observational study design and potential for selection bias in the treatments received.

Secondary RT and ADT after RP have an additive negative influence on urinary function, potency, and QoL. Patients with high-risk disease should be counseled before RP on the potential net impairment of functional outcomes due to multimodal treatment.

Men with high-risk disease choosing surgery upfront should be counseled on the potential need for additional radiation and or androgen deprivation, and the potential net impairment of functional outcomes arising from multimodal treatment.

European urology. 2016 Jan 22 [Epub ahead of print]

Meike Adam, Pierre Tennstedt, Dominik Lanwehr, Derya Tilki, Thomas Steuber, Burkhard Beyer, Imke Thederan, Hans Heinzer, Alexander Haese, Georg Salomon, Lars Budäus, Uwe Michl, Dirk Pehrke, Pär Stattin, Jürgen Bernard, Bernd Klaus, Raisa S Pompe, Cordula Petersen, Hartwig Huland, Markus Graefen, Rudolf Schwarz, Wolfgang Huber, Stacy Loeb, Thorsten Schlomm

Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany., Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Surgery and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Sweden., Fraunhofer-Institut für Grafische Datenverarbeitung, Darmstadt, Germany., Department for Radiooncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Heidelberg, Germany., Department of Urology, Population Health and Laura & Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, New York University, NY, USA., Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Department of Urology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. Electronic address: .