Biomarkers that facilitate the prediction of disease recurrence in prostate cancer (PCa) may enable physicians to personalize treatment for individual patients. In the current study, PD-1 (PDCD1) promoter methylation was assessed in a cohort of 498 PCa patients included in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and a second cohort of 300 PCa cases treated at the University Hospital of Bonn. In the TCGA cohort, the PD-1 promoter was significantly hypermethylated in carcinomas versus normal prostatic epithelium (55.5% vs. 38.2%, p < 0.001) and PD-1 methylation (mPD-1) inversely correlated with PD-1 mRNA expression in PCa (Spearman's ρ = -0.415, p < 0.001). In both cohorts, mPD-1 significantly correlated with preoperative prostate specific antigen (PSA). In univariate Cox Proportional Hazard analysis, mPD-1 served as a significant prognostic factor for biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival (Hazard ratio: HR = 2.35 [1.35-4.10], p = 0.003, n = 410) in the TCGA cohort. In multivariate analysis, mPD-1 was shown to add significant independent prognostic information adjunct to pathologic tumor category (pT) and Gleason grading group (HR = 2.08 [1.16-3.74], p = 0.014, n = 350). PD-1 promoter methylation analyses could thus potentially aid the identification of patients which might benefit from adjuvant treatment after radical prostatectomy. Moreover, our data suggest an intrinsic role of PD-1 in PCa carcinogenesis and disease progression, which needs to be addressed in future studies.
Oncoimmunology. 2016 Sep 02*** epublish ***
Diane Goltz, Heidrun Gevensleben, Jörn Dietrich, Jörg Ellinger, Jennifer Landsberg, Glen Kristiansen, Dimo Dietrich
Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn , Bonn, Germany., Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Bonn , Bonn, Germany., Department of Urology, University Hospital Bonn , Bonn, Germany., Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Bonn , Bonn, Germany., Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany; Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany.