Prostate cancer: Developing novel approaches to castration-sensitive disease.

Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the mainstay of castration-sensitive prostate cancer (CSPC) therapy, the disease's heterogeneity and the limited duration of the response have chaperoned the introduction of chemotherapy and the investigation of novel hormonal targeted agents in this setting. Combinations of ADT plus chemotherapy or novel hormonal therapies are being tested at various stages of CSPC with promising results. Furthermore, immunotherapy and experimental drugs are also being actively investigated in this setting. Intriguing multimodality strategies, chiefly deployed for early-stage disease with the aim of maximizing the efficacy and duration of the response, are being explored and may become valid therapeutic options in the future. Ultimately, striking a balance between the clinical gains of these combinations and possibly increased toxicity and reduced quality of life will be necessary. The development of precision medicine and accurate biomarkers is fundamental to progress. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

Cancer. 2016 Nov 01 [Epub ahead of print]

Edoardo Francini, Mary-Ellen Taplin

Medical Oncology Unit, Umberto I Hospital, University of Rome, Rome, Italy., Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. .