Purpose To test the impact of existing Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) version 2 (V2) decision rules, as well as of proposed adjustments to these decision rules, on detection of Gleason score (GS) 7 or greater (GS ≥7) prostate cancer. Materials and Methods Two radiologists independently provided PI-RADS V2 scores for the dominant lesion on 343 prostate magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Diagnostic performance for GS ≥7 tumor was assessed by using MR imaging-ultrasonography fusion-targeted biopsy as the reference. The impact of existing PI-RADS V2 decision rules, as well as a series of exploratory proposed adjustments, on the frequency of GS ≥7 tumor detection, was evaluated. Results A total of 210 lesions were benign, 43 were GS 6, and 90 were GS ≥7. Lesions were GS ≥7 in 0%-4.1% of PI-RADS categories 1 and 2, 11.4%-27.1% of PI-RADS category 3, 44.4%-49.3% of PI-RADS category 4, and 72.1%-73.7% of PI-RADS category 5 lesions. PI-RADS category 4 or greater had sensitivity of 78.9%-87.8% and specificity of 75.5%-79.1 for detecting GS ≥7 tumor. The frequency of GS ≥7 tumor for existing PI-RADS V2 decision rules was 30.0%-33.3% in peripheral zone (PZ) lesions upgraded from category 3 to 4 based on dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) score of positive; 50.0%-66.7% in transition zone (TZ) lesions upgraded from category 3 to 4 based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) score of 5; and 71.7%-72.7% of lesions in both zones upgraded from category 4 to 5 based on size of 15 mm or greater. The frequency of GS ≥7 tumor for proposed adjustments to the decision rules was 30.0%-60.0% for TZ lesions upgraded from category 3 to 4 based on DWI score of 4; 33.3%-57.1% for TZ lesions upgraded from category 3 to 4 based on DCE score of positive when incorporating new criteria (unencapsulated sheetlike enhancement) for DCE score of positive in TZ; and 56.4%-61.9% for lesions in both zones upgraded from category 4 to 5 based on size of 10-14 mm. Other proposed adjustments yielded GS ≥7 tumor in less than 15% of cases for one or more readers. Conclusion Existing PI-RADS V2 decision rules exhibited reasonable performance in detecting GS ≥7 tumor. Several proposed adjustments to the criteria (in TZ, upgrading category 3 to 4 based on DWI score of 4 or modified DCE score of positive; in PZ or TZ, upgrading category 4 to 5 based on size of 10-14 mm) may also have value for this purpose. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Radiology. 2016 Oct 26 [Epub ahead of print]
Andrew B Rosenkrantz, James S Babb, Samir S Taneja, Justin M Ream
From the Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging (A.B.R., J.S.B., J.M.R.), and Department of Urology, Division of Urologic Oncology (S.S.T.), NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Ave, 3rd Floor, New York, NY 10016.