Clinical factors stratifying the risk of tumor upgrading to high-grade disease in low-risk prostate cancer.

To identify clinical factors stratifying the risk of tumor upgrading to increasing patterns of the tumor grading system in low-risk prostate cancer (PCa).

We evaluated the records of 438 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy. Associations between clinical factors and tumor upgrading were assessed by the univariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression model.

Low-risk PCa included 170 cases (38.8%) and tumor upgrading was detected in 111 patients (65.3%): 72 (42.4%) had pathology Gleason pattern (pGP) 3 + 4, 27 (15.9%) pGP 4 + 3, and 12 (7.1%) pGP 4 + 4. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and proportion of positive cores (P+) were independent predictors of upgrading to high-risk disease. These factors also stratified the risk of tumor upgrading to the increasing patterns of the tumor grading system. The model allowed the identification of pGP 4 + 4. The main difference between high-risk PCa and other upgraded tumors related to PSA load (odds ratio 2.4) that associated with high volume disease in the specimen.

Low-risk PCa is a heterogeneous population with significant rates of tumor upgrading. Significant clinical predictors stratifying the risk of tumor upgrading to increasing patterns of the grading system included PSA and P+. These factors allowed the identification of the subset hiding high-grade disease requiring further investigations before delivering active treatments.

Tumori. 2016 Oct 26 [Epub ahead of print]

Antonio B Porcaro, Salvatore Siracusano, Nicolò de Luyk, Paolo Corsi, Marco Sebben, Alessandro Tafuri, Tania Processali, Mattia Cerasuolo, Daniele Mattevi, Davide Inverardi, Maria A Cerruto, Matteo Brunelli, Walter Artibani

Urologic Clinic, University Hospital, Ospedale Policlinico, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona - Italy., Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Ospedale Policlinico, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona - Italy.

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